[stextbox id=’custom’]Учебное пособие „ЕГЭ. Английский язык. Словообразование с О. Генри» содержит справочные и тренировочные материалы по словообразованию (раздел „Грамматика и лексика»). Задания в пособии учитывают все способы словообразования, которые могут встретиться ученикам на экзамене. В качестве тренировочных материалов использованы примеры из произведения классика американской литературы О. Генри.[/stextbox]
ЕГЭ. Английский язык. Словообразование с О. Генри. Гулов А.П.
СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ В ЕДИНОМ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОМ ЭКЗАМЕНЕ (ЕГЭ) ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ
В ЕГЭ по английскому языку в разделе 3 «Грамматика и лексика» потребуется умение использовать аффиксы для образования имен существительных, прилагательных, наречий и глаголов, включая отрицательные префиксы для образования слов с нужным значением. В таблице перечислены все аффиксы, которые могут потребоваться для успешного выполнения заданий на словообразование на экзамене.
Существительные Глаголы Прилагательные Наречия Отрицательные префиксы
Значение аффиксов показано в следующей таблице:
Аффиксы и их значения Примеры
-er/-or person or object that does a specified action admirer, believer, director, educator, employer
-ness state of being attractiveness, brightness, consciousness, distinctiveness, effectiveness
-ist person or object that does a specified action activist, artist, capitalist, classicist, criminologist
-ship state of being; position held championship, citizenship, friendship, leadership, ownership
-ing act of building, heading, manufacturing, moving, reading
-sion state of being admission, conclusion, decision, impression, possession
-tion state of being action, definition, education, hesitation, imagination
-ance state or quality of acceptance, acquaintance, annoyance, significance, tolerance
-ence state or quality of correspondence, difference, obedience, preference, residence
-ment condition achievement, agreement, development, encouragement, involvement
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Аффиксы и их значения Примеры
-ity quality of majority, mobility, nationality, personality, popularity
re- again reassure, recharge, redirect, remake, remarry
dis- opposite of, not disobey, disable, disapprove, disclose, disconnect
mis- wrongly misaddress, misunderstand, misspell, mishear, miscalculate
-ise/-ize- to make (American spelling) hypnotise, modernise, organise, popularise, realise
-y characterised by easy, frosty, mighty, moody, spicy
-ic having the form or character of academic, athletic, dramatic, enthusiastic, historic
-ful notable for beautiful, careful, doubtful, eventful, joyful
-al having the form or character of personal, practical, professional, residential, substantial
-ly having the form or character of daily, elderly, friendly, lonely, lovely
-ian / -an the nature of or having quality of Asian, civilian, metropolitan, Russian, vegetarian
-ing the nature of or having quality of amazing, annoying, challenging, interesting, leading
-ous the nature of or having quality of anomalous, dangerous, glorious, mischievous, numerous
-ible / -able capable of being admirable, comfortable, payable, reliable, resistible
-less without careless, doubtless, endless, homeless, thoughtless
-ive having the nature of attractive, conservative, constructive, effective, imaginative
inter- between interactive, interchangeable, international, intersectional, interstellar
-ly related to or quality actively, carefully, comfortably, heavily, intentionally
un- not unclean, unforgettable, unhelpful, unsafe, unsatisfying
in- / im- not imbalance, immature, imperfect, impolite, insincere
Для лучшего запоминания аффиксов и дополнительной тренировки в словообразовании рекомендуем в глоссарии в конце книги вписать перевод слов на русский язык, обращая внимание на форму слова.
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При выполнении заданий на словообразование обращайте внимание на контекст. Определяйте, какое слово требуется в предложении — имя существительное, прилагательное, глагол или наречие, а также не должно ли оно иметь отрицательное значение.
Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Заполните пропуски полученными словами.
On Sam’s face was an
deepened with regret and slightly tempered by the patient forgiveness of a connoisseur who cannot be understood.
But very_and inexorably he buckled
his saddle-cinches, looped his stake-rope and hung it to his saddle-horn, tied his slicker and coat on the cantle, and looped his quirt on his right wrist.
The Merrydews (_of the Rancho
Altito), men, women, children, and servants were grouped in the «gallery» of the ranch house, all with faces set to the tune of melancholy and grief.
And then, during absolute_, except
for the bumping of a hind elbow of a hound dog as he pursued a wicked flea, Sam tenderly and carefully tied his guitar across his saddle on top of his slicker and coat. The guitar was in a green duck bag; and if you catch the
_of it, it explains Sam.
You see, a pony gets to know his rider mighty well, and it
is not_that cow ponies in pastures and
at hitching racks had often guyed Sam’s pony for being ridden by a guitar player instead of by a rollicking, cussing, all-wool cowboy.
You remember the stories you memorize and the card tricks you study and that little piece on the piano — how does it go? — ti-tum-te-tum-ti-tum — those little Arabian
Ten Minute_that you furnish when
you go up to call on your rich Aunt Jane.
Barons have no_to read such folderol
as this; and Workers have no time: so I know you must be a Troubadour, and that you will understand Sam Galloway.
A visit to a sheep ranch seemed to him _just then.
Here he had food and lodging as good as he had ever longed for; absolute immunity from care or exertion or
strife; an_welcome, and a host whose
delight at the sixteenth repetition of a song or a story was as keen as at its initial giving.
Also he was the loudest and most_
bully and braggart and bad man in southwest Texas. And he always made good whenever he bragged; and the more noise he made the more_he was.All the agencies of inquisition — the hounds of the trail, the sleuths of the city’s labyrinths, the closet detectives of
theory and_— will be invoked to the
This snuffing out of a human being like the erasure of a chalk man from a blackboard is one of the most _themes in dramaturgy.
\I have recently made quite a lot of money in a lead mine,
and I want her to share my__
The policeman pulled his moustache and looked so
thoughtful and_that Meeks could
almost feel the joyful tears of his sister Mary dropping
upon his bright blue tie.
At police headquarters, Meeks received ready
I do not see what aid an_of this kind
would be toward finding her.
After waiting for two hours in the anteroom of the great detective’s apartment, Meeks was shown into his
The famous sleuth’s thin, intellectual face, piercing eyes, and rate per word are too well known to need
Meeks bowed his_to the price.
A family bearing the name of Clark disappeared
_from a small flat in which they were
Following out by induction the idea that this
_gave me, I at once located the missing
It had been occupied by no tenant since her
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\The room was small, dingy, and_
Shamrock Jolnes leaned against the mantel for ten minutes, with his head resting upon his hand, and an
absorbed look upon his_face.
«How did you manage it?» he asked, with
_in his tones.
Perhaps Jolnes’s only_was a
professional pride in his wonderful achievements in induction.
He was ever ready to astound and charm
_by describing his methods.
«By_,» said Jolnes, spreading his clues
upon a little table, «I got rid of certain parts of the city to
which Mrs Snyder might have removed.»
It was an old-fashioned brownstone house in a prosperous
He was a middle-aged man, wearing spectacles and a
brown beard trimmed to a_point.
In order to test her theory as to his_,
she brought from her room one day a painting that she had bought at a sale, and set it against the shelves behind the bread counter.
Prudent_who had ordered
refreshments by phone in the morning were now being served.