ЕГЭ. Английский язык. Словообразование с Джеком Лондоном. Гулов А.П.

Пособие поможет школьникам подготовиться к успешной сдаче ЕГЭ по английскому языку. Книга содержит справочные и тренировочные материалы по словообразованию (раздел „Грамматика и лексика». Задания, включенные в пособие, учитывают все способы словообразования, которые могут встретиться ученикам на ЕГЭ в соответствии с „Кодификатором элементов содержания и требований к уровню подготовки выпускников образовательных организаций для проведения единого государственного экзамена по английскому языку».
Особенностью книги является то, что в качестве тренировочных материалов использованы отрывки из произведения классика американской литературы Джека Лондона «The Call of the Wild», «The White Fang» и «The Iron Heel».

ЕГЭ. Английский язык. Словообразование с Джеком Лондоном. Гулов А.П.

ЕГЭ. Английский язык. Словообразование с Джеком Лондоном. Гулов А.П.

СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ В ЕДИНОМ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОМ ЭКЗАМЕНЕ (ЕГЭ) ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ
В ЕГЭ по английскому языку в разделе 3 „Грамматика и лексика» потребуется умение использовать аффиксы для образования имен существительных, прилагательных, наречий и глаголов, включая отрицательные префиксы для образования слов с нужным значением. В таблице перечислены все аффиксы, которые могут потребоваться для успешного выполнения заданий на словообразование на экзамене.
Существительные Глаголы Прилагательные Наречия Отрицательные префиксы
-er/-or, -ness, -ist, -ship, -ing, -sion/ -tion, -ance/-ence, -ment, -ity re-, dis-, mis-; -ize / -ise -у, -ic, -ful, -al, -ly, -ian / -an, -ing, -ous,-ible / -able, -less, -ive, inter- -iy un-, in-/im-
Значение аффиксов показано в следующей таблице:
Аффиксы и их значения Примеры
-er/-or person or object that does a specified action admirer, believer, director, educator, employer
-ness state of being attractiveness, brightness, consciousness, distinctiveness, effectiveness
-ist person or object that does a specified action activist, artist, capitalist, classicist, criminologist
-ship state of being; position held championship, citizenship, friendship, leadership, ownership
-ing act of building, heading, manufacturing, moving, reading
-sion state of being admission, conclusion, decision, impression, possession
-tion state of being action, definition, education, hesitation, imagination
-ance state or quality of acceptance, acquaintance, annoyance, significance, tolerance
-ence ‘ state or quality of correspondence, difference, obedience, preference, residence
-ment condition achievement, agreement, development, encouragement, involvement
— 4 —
Аффиксы и их значения Примеры
-ity quality of majority, mobility, nationality, personality, popularity
ге- again reassure, recharge, redirect, remake, remarry
dis- opposite of, not disobey, disable, disapprove, disclose, disconnect
mis- wrongly misaddress, misunderstand, misspell, mishear, miscalculate
-ise / -ize- (American spelling) to make hypnotise, modernise, organise, popularise, realise
-y characterised by easy, frosty, mighty, moody, spicy
-ic having the form or character of academic, athletic, dramatic, enthusiastic, historic
-ful notable for beautiful, careful, doubtful, eventful, joyful
-al having the form or character of personal, practical, professional, residential, substantial
-iy having the form or character of daily, elderly, friendly, lonely, lovely
-ian / -an the nature of or having quality of Asian, civilian, metropolitan, Russian, vegetarian
-ing the nature of or having quality of amazing, annoying, challenging, interesting, leading
-ous the nature of or having quality of anomalous, dangerous, glorious, mischievous, numerous
-ible / -able capable of being admirable, comfortable, payable, reliable, resistible
-less without careless, doubtless, endless, homeless, thoughtless
-ive having the nature of attractive, conservative, constructive, effective, imaginative
inter- between interactive, interchangeable, international, intersectional, interstellar
-ly related to or quality actively, carefully, comfortably, heavily, intentionally
un- not unclean, unforgettable, unhelpful, unsafe, unsatisfying
in- / im- not imbalance, immature, imperfect, impolite, insincere
Для лучшего запоминания аффиксов и дополнительной тренировки в словообразовании рекомендуем в глоссарии в конце книги вписать перевод слов на русский язык, обращая внимание на форму слова.
— 5 —
ТРЕНИРОВОЧНЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ
При выполнении заданий на словообразование обращайте внимание на контекст. Определяйте, какое слово требуется в предложении — имя существительное, прилагательное, глагол или наречие, а также не должно ли оно иметь отрицательное значение.
Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Заполните пропуски полученными словами.
Task 1
6
8
NOUNS ‘THE CALL OF THE WILD’
Francois was stern, demanding instant
_, and by virtue of his whip receiving it.
With a roar that was almost lionlike in its
_, he again hurled himself at the man.
But Buck did not read the newspapers, and he did not know that Manuel, one of the gardener’s helpers, was an undesirable__
Dazed, suffering intolerable pain from throat and tongue, with the life half throttled out of him, Buck attempted to face__
He had great faith in Buck’s strength and had often thought him capable of starting such a load; but never, as
now, had he faced the_of it, the eyes of
a dozen men fixed upon him, silent and waiting. His_was rapid.
Of this_Buck was unwittingly guilty,
and the first knowledge he had of his indiscretion was when Solleks whirled upon him and slashed his shoulder to the bone for three inches up and down.
The_Buck gave the rebels led them
into all kinds of petty misdemeanors.
— 6 —
OBEY
FEROCIOUS ACQUAINT TORMENT
POSSIBLE
DEVELOP OFFEND
ENCOURAGE
10
10
Because men, groping in the Arctic_,
had found a yellow metal, and because steamship and transportation companies were booming the find, thousands of men were rushing into the Northland. Forever after Buck avoided his blind side, and to the last of their_had no more trouble.
Task 2
To be sure, it was an unwonted_: but
he had learned to trust in men he knew, and to give them
credit for a wisdom that outreached his own.
For that matter, high-strung and finely sensitive, the ill
_had flung him into a fever, which
was fed by the inflammation of his parched and swollen throat and tongue.
He had one_which Buck was unlucky
enough to discover, he did not like to be approached on his blind side.
It marked, further, the decay or going to pieces of his moral nature, a vain thing and a handicap in the ruthless
struggle for__
At last, one morning, the propeller was quiet, and the Narwhal was pervaded with an atmosphere of
Also, in his gambling, he had one besetting
_— faith in a system; and this made
his damnation certain.
This time he was aware that it was the club, but his
_knew no caution.
A_of the men who had witnessed the
making of the bet decided in his favor, whereat the odds went up to three to one against Buck. Another night Dub and Joe fought Spitz and made him forego the_they deserved.
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